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Dressel 1to 6: wine amphoras; Dressel 1: Roman wine amphora, B.C. to 13 A.D.; Dressel 2: Roman wine amphora, 16 B.C. to 29 A.D.; Dressel 3: Roman. An amphora is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least .. The first type of Roman amphora, Dressel 1, appears in central Italy in the late 2nd century BC. This type had thick walls and a characteristic red . Distinctive Features. This was the most common type of late Republican Roman amphora. Following an early classificatory scheme by Lamboglia (), the.

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Potsherd: Atlas of Roman Pottery

The vessel is assigned to that century on the basis of its small handles that approach the neck horizontally Martin-Kilcher, abb. Fabric analysis shows that several different areas were involved in production of the form.

Amphorae often were marked with a variety of stamps, sgraffitoand inscriptions. Painted inscriptions show that Dressel 1 was a wine amphora; the contents of the form can be amplified by reference to the shipwreck evidence Zevi; Sealey; Peacock and Williams The sheer quantity of Dressel 20 sherds at Elms Farm ruled out any possibility of attempting a minimum vessel number count. Some potteries were still making the form there as late as the early 3rd century AD Freed University of York legal statements.

Internet Archaeol. Atkinson and Preston. The Amphoras

For the most part, however, an amphora was tableware, or sat close to the table, was intended to be seen, and was finely decorated as such by master painters. On the Peacock viewthe treaty arrangements between Caesar and the Trinovantes in 54 BC coincided with a drastic attenuation of wine imports to Hengistbury Head and neighbouring sites in central southern Britain after the revolt of the Dresxel.


A third rim is known from the excavations at Heybridge Hall by the Northamptonshire Archaeological Unit, just over a kilometre to the south-east. At first sight, the sherd count and sherd weight data suggest that imports of the form were at their height in Ceramic Phase 3 but this masks a far more interesting picture in which wine imports to Heybridge actually declined dramatically in that period.

Even sherds from the junction of neck and body can be diagnostic of form because the body often falls away from the neck without any shoulder feature at all. It is becoming increasingly common now at least in French excavation reports to give the diameter, height, thickness and angle of inclination of Dressel 1 rims. One of the main sources of supply to Britain was apparently the Cadiz region Peacock Wine imports at Hengistbury started not in the 1st century BC but much earlier, amphoa the previous century.

The pelike was introduced around the end of the 6th century BC. Some of the exports listed by Strabo show that Britain had found herself drawn into the network of economic relations that led to the Roman garrisons across the channel. At the same time drexsel Cuma southern Italy the production of the cadii cumani type starts Dressel A grooved handle sherd settled the identification as Dressel Amphore antique romaine vinaire du type Dressel 1B.

For other uses, see Amphora disambiguation. There is still no satisfactory metrological scheme for defining subdivisions of the form. Results have been encouraging and, when applied to the Elms Farm material, a Dressel 8 rim Figureno.

The density of sites in Essex with Dressel 1 but not the number of amphoras retrieved is thus only exceeded in Belgic Gaul by the concentrations in the Aisne valley and the central Moselle Apmhoraammphora With the notable exceptions of the city of Rome and classical Athens, it was exceptional in antiquity for staple foodstuffs to be transported long distances to feed settlements on a regular basis.


Amphorae first appeared on the Phoenician coast at approximately BC. Dressel 1 amphoras at Elms Farm could be readily identified on the basis of their rims and handles Figures andnos AD 25 Haselgrove b Such expatriates would not only have enjoyed wine themselves but would have known how to put it to good use among the Britons. At Elms Farm, some of the Dressel 20 sherds from later contexts were conspicuous for their thin walls and generally smaller build.

Amphora Types According to Dressel

The bodies of the two types have similar shapes. Production of the form continued until the third quarter of the 3rd century AD when it evolved into the successor form, Dressel 23 Carreras Monfort and Funari13, with refs. Many are known and they form a coherent, if intriguing, element in Dresdel 1 epigraphy. Distribution of the form and its typology suggest an origin in the Aegean region Ampnora; Parkerfig.

Imitations of the Dressel were produced on the island of Cos for the transportation of wine from the 4th century BC until middle imperial times.

Nor are the Elms Farm vessels the only Dressel 1 amphoras from Heybridge. Surviving examples bear the inscription “I am one of the prizes from Athens”, and usually depict the particular event they were awarded for.

With Pascual 1 it tends to be tall and vertical, or steeply inclined.